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A closed path is established between the well or pump to a valve system that is used to fill glass ampoules with water, creating a headspace with CFC-free, ultra-pure nitrogen gas. Age is determined from CFCs by relating their measured concentrations in ground water back to known historical atmospheric concentrations and/or to calculated concentrations expected in water in equilibrium with air.
Probably better known to the public as Freon, CFCs are nontoxic, nonflammable and noncarcinogenic, but they contribute to ozone depletion. J., and Busenberg, Eurybiades 1994, Estimation and corroboration of shallow ground-water flow paths and travel times by environmental tracer and hydraulic analyses A case study near Locust Grove, Maryland: Water Resources Research, v.
For this reason, the term age is normally qualified with the word model or apparent, that is, model age or apparent age. USGS scientists have investigated some of the most important factors that can affect CFC concentrations in ground water and the resulting age interpretations (Busenberg and Plummer, 1992; Plummer and others, 1993; Dunkle and others, 1993; Ekwurzel and others, 1994; Cook and others, 1995; Plummer and others 1998a, 1998b; Plummer and Busenberg, 1999).
These include (1) uncertainty of the temperature at the water table during recharge, (2) entrapment of excess air during recharge, (3) uncertainty in recharge elevation, (4) thickness of the unsaturated zone, (5) effect of urban air where CFC values may exceed regional values, (6) contamination from a specific local source, (7) microbial degradation (in anaerobic environments), (8) sorption onto organic and mineral surfaces, and (9) mixing of younger and older water in a well. A., 1998, Chemistry of unsaturated zone gases sampled in open boreholes at the crest of Yucca Mountain, Nevada: Data and basic concepts of chemical and physical processes in the mountain: Water Resources Research, v. For additional information, see or contact: Niel Plummer (email: [email protected]) U.
USGS scientists (Busenberg and Plummer, 1992) adapted analytical procedures developed by the oceanographic scientific community for ground-water studies and designed sampling equipment and procedures for collection and preservation of water samples in the field.
Water samples for CFC analysis are now routinely collected from domestic, irrigation, monitoring, and municipal wells, and from springs. Nuclear Regulatory Commission-licensed USGS laboratory for analysis of CFC content by gas chromatography to a detection limit of about 0.3 picograms per kilogram (0.3 pg/kg) of water, which is equivalent to 0.3x10 Ground-water dating with CFC-11, CFC-12 and CFC-113 is possible because (1) their amounts in the atmosphere over the past 50 years have been reconstructed, (2) their solubilities in water are known, and (3) concentrations in air and young water are high enough that they can be measured.
Prior to the late 1980s, however, there were no reliable means of dating ground water recharged during this time scale and, until recently, none of those methods were considered practical for use in establishing regional patterns.